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|Selecting a suitable water treatment technology for produced water in the shale gas industry is a complex and dynamic consideration that is contingent upon a full understanding of interrelated parameters such as, location, water quality and quantity, costs, and treatment technology capabilities. The Produced Water Treatment Catalog has been designed to help facilitate the treatment technology “selection” process by providing a characterization and assessment of existing and emerging technologies that are either being applied in shale gas arena, or have the capability for application. The catalog also provides information on various water treatment companies who are capable of providing such technologies and in which basin they are active. It is anticipated the information provided will help operators evaluate potential treatment options and even more so, help facilitate the pairing of treatment technologies to their specific water conditions, as well as to their operational needs and approaches.|
The modern approach of shale gas production and the associated volume of water that is required and/or generated can present operators with a unique set of operational circumstances and challenges. Furthermore, the composition of produced water is typically low in quality and may require specific treatment considerations before appropriate water management objectives (i.e., re-use, discharge, disposal, etc.) can be implemented. The water treatment technologies detailed in this catalog have been selected because of their technical capabilities to treat produced water that is generated in the shale gas industry. Although, many water treatment technologies are commonly applied in other oil & gas industries, many would lack the technical capability to efficiently treat shale gas produced water since in many cases, for example, high TDS concentrations exist. For this reason, the number of applicable technologies that are capable of efficiently treating produced water generated from the shale gas industry is limited.
In most circumstances, the successful treatment of produced water in the shale gas industry will require the application of a pre-treatment step to remove or reduce common constituents that perpetuate scaling, corrosion, and fouling of equipment. As such, pre-treatment technologies (i.e., carbon filter, flocculation, ion exchange, etc.) are often packaged together with a vendor specific desalination technology that collectively, functions as a multi-technology treatment process. Because operators do not choose pre-treatment technologies for their water treatment needs, but instead rely on the service vendor to apply appropriate pre-treatment steps to efficiently operate their process, pre-treatment technologies were assessed on a limited basis.
The water treatment catalog provides “Technology Fact Sheets” on treatment processes that are being applied in the shale gas industry such as, thermal evaporation, reverse osmosis and crystallization, as well as “Vendor Profiles” for treatment companies who offer associated proprietary technologies for each treatment category. The Technology Fact Sheets are accessible on the main web page of the Catalog and include process descriptions, capabilities, limitations and costs. The Technology Fact Sheets also include a breakdown of treatment companies who offer the technology and to date, in which major shale basins each vendor is currently active. The Vendor Profiles are accessible from associated technology fact sheets or from the Vendor Catalog on the left menu. The Vendor Profiles provide a brief overview of the company’s approach to the general technology, company contact information and profile, costs, and a link to the vendor’s website. Please note this information was collected in the past and changes may have been made to either the technology or vendor profile, please check with the vendor for updates.
Using the Shale Gas Water Treatment Catalog
1. Select Treatment Type- A PDF Fact Sheet of the treatment technology will open up with an overview of the technology.
2. Select Vendor(s)- A PDF of the Vendor's Profile will open up. Use the Shale Gas/Vendor Matrix to decide which vendors are active in your basin.
|Shale Gas Water Treatment Catalog|
|Treatment Type||Water Treatment Category||Water Treatment Subcategory|
|Primary/Desalination||Thermal Distillation/Evaporation||Vapor Compression|
|Pre/Post||Suspended Solids/Heavy Metals||Media Filtration|
|Water Softening||Ion Exchange|
|Treatment Considerations||Scale Inhibitors|
|Treatment Vendor and Shale Gas Basin Matrix|
|Shale Gas Basins|
|Thermal Distillation||Fountain Quail|
GE Water & Process Tech.
GE Water & Process Tech
|Total Separation Solutions||Fountain Quail|
GE Water & Process Tech.
|Ultrasound||Ecosphere||Total Separation Solutions||Ecosphere||Ecosphere|
|Electrodialysis||Use of this Technology has been considered but is currently not being utilized as a desalination treatment technology by the Shale Gas industry.|